Par quel étrange paradoxe le contrat social, censé instituer la liberté et l'égalité civiles, a-t-il maintenu les femmes dans un état de subordination ? Pourquoi, dans le nouvel ordre social, celles-ci n'ont-elles pas accédé, en même temps que les hommes, à la condition d'« individus » émancipés ?
Les théories du contrat social, héritées de Locke et de Rousseau, et renouvelées depuis Rawls, ne peuvent ignorer les enjeux de justice que soulève le genre. Carole Pateman montre, dans cet ouvrage désormais classique, que le passage de l'ordre ancien du statut à une société moderne du contrat ne marque en rien la ?n du patriarcat. La philosophe met ainsi au jour l'envers refoulé du contrat social : le « contrat sexuel », qui, via le partage entre sphère privée et sphère publique, fonde la liberté des hommes sur la domination des femmes. Il s'agit là moins d'exploitation que de subordination, comme le démontre l'autrice en analysant le contrat de mariage, mais aussi l'ensemble des contrats touchant à la propriété de la per-sonne, de la prostitution à la maternité de substitution, jusqu'à l'esclavage et au salariat. Ainsi s'engage, à partir du féminisme, une critique de la philosophie politique libérale dans son principe même : pour Carole Pateman, un ordre social libre ne peut en aucun cas être de type contractuel.
Carole Pateman is one of the leading political theorists writing today. This wide-ranging volume brings together for the first time a selection of her work on democratic theory and her feminist critique of mainstream political theory. The volume includes substantial discussions on questions of democracy and citizenship, including the construction of the concept of the political and complex, but largely unrecognized, problems surrounding women's participation and consent, and their relation to the social contract tradition. This work should be of interest to students and researchers in political theory, women's studies and sociology.
Carole Pateman is one of the foremost political theorists writing in English today. In this outstanding new work, she presents a major reinterpretation of modern political theory. She shows how standard discussions of social contract theory tell only half the story. The sexual contract which establishes modern patriarchy and the political right of men over women is never mentioned. In a wide-ranging and scholarly discussion, Pateman examines the significance of the political fictions of the original contract and the slave contract. She also offers a sweeping challenge to conventional understandings - of both left and right - of actual contracts in everyday life: the marriage contract, the employment contract, the prostitution contract and the new surrogacy contract. By bringing a feminist perspective to bear on the contradictions and paradoxes surrounding women and contract and the relation between the sexes, she is able to shed new light on the fundamental problems of freedom and subordination. The Sexual Contract will become a classic text in the politics of gender and will be of major interest to students of social and political theory and philosophy, women's studies, sociology and jurisprudence.
Contract and Domination offers a bold challenge to contemporary contract theory, arguing that it should either be fundamentally rethought or abandoned altogether. Since the publication of John Rawls's A Theory of Justice, contract theory has once again become central to the Western political tradition. But gender justice is neglected and racial justice almost completely ignored. Carole Pateman and Charles Mills's earlier books, The Sexual Contract (1988) and The Racial Contract (1997), offered devastating critiques of gender and racial domination and the contemporary contract tradition's silence on them. Both books have become classics of revisionist radical democratic political theory. Now Pateman and Mills are collaborating for the first time in an interdisciplinary volume, drawing on their insights from political science and philosophy. They are building on but going beyond their earlier work to bring the sexual and racial contracts together.
In Contract and Domination, Pateman and Mills discuss their differences about contract theory and whether it has a useful future, excavate the (white) settler contract that created new civil societies in North America and Australia, argue via a non-ideal contract for reparations to black Americans, confront the evasions of contemporary contract theorists, explore the intersections of gender and race and the global sexual-racial contract, and reply to their critics.
This iconoclastic book throws the gauntlet down to mainstream white male contract theory. It is vital reading for anyone with an interest in political theory and political philosophy, and the systems of male and racial domination.
In the midst of growing criticism of current economic orthodoxies and welfare systems, basic income is growing in popularity. This is the first book to discuss existing at examples of basic income, in both rich and poor countries, and to consider its prospects in other places around the world.