Who makes the decisions on social housing in general and "disadvantaged" people in particular ? Where is the focus ? How do the various government tiers and regulating bodies interact, and how do decisions ripple across Europe ? The financial crisis, the economic downturn, the European Union and more fundamental political changes have strengthened the pressures for change in social housing systems across the continent.
How these are playing out varies according to each country's history and welfare scheme. In particular, a glance at European Community decisions suggests that the EU is gravitating towards the notion that social housing should be restricted to the people with income in brackets that bar them from housing at market prices. In most European countries, the economic downturn has accentuated the trends that had already been at work for years.
The EU's interventions, more prominent local and supra-national authorities, as well as greater private-sector involvement in public-policy implementation, illustrate the shifts in public action and raise questions about the point of social housing, its governance and the connection between housing and the so-called "disadvantaged". In the first section of the book, social housing in different welfare systems (United Kingdom, Germany,Finland, Spain, Czech Republic, Netherlands, France) is analysed.
The second part addresses this issue from a transnational and multidisciplinary perspective to cast light on the question of whether such a thing as a European social housing model indeed exists. The third probes whether the notion of a "French model" is actually relevant, putting the spotlight on each of the various facets of France's public policy in the social-housing realm in turn.
This report synthesises the findings from six case studies of urban green growth policies, four at city level (Paris, Chicago, Stockholm, Kitakyushu) and two at the national level (China, Korea). It offers a definition of urban green growth and a framework for analysing how it might play out in different types of cities. It demonstrates the importance of urban policies for achieving national environmental policy goals and discusses the increased efficiency of policy intervention at the urban level. It identifies urban activities to reduce environmental impact that are most likely to contribute to the policy priorities of job creation, urban attractiveness, metro-regional supply of green products and services, and increased urban land values. It also provides guidance on addressing potential financing and governance challenges that may arise in pursuing urban green growth. Finally, the report offers a preliminary proposal for how green growth in cities could be measured.
Electricity Information provides a comprehensive review of historical and current market trends in the OECD electricity sector, including 2013 preliminary data.
An Introduction, notes, definitions and auxiliary information are provided in Part I. Part II of the publication provides an overview of the world electricity developments in 2012 covering world electricity and heat production, input fuel mix, supply and consumption, and electricity imports and exports. A greater focus is given to the 34 OECD countries with more detailed information covering production, installed capacity, input energy mix to electricity and heat production, consumption, electricity trades, input fuel prices and end-user electricity prices.
Part III of the publication provides a corresponding statistical overview of developments in the world and OECD electricity and heat market for 2012, as well as monthly OECD production and trade electricity data for 2013.
Part IV provides, in tabular form, detailed and comprehensive statistical coverage of the power and heat industry developments for each of the OECD member countries and for OECD and IEA regional aggregates. It provides comprehensive statistical details on overall energy consumption, economic indicators, electricity and heat production by energy form and plant type, electricity imports and exports, sectoral energy and electricity consumption, as well as prices for electricity and electricity input fuels for each country and regional aggregate.
This volume contains data on the supply and consumption of coal, oil, gas, electricity, heat, renewables and waste presented as comprehensive energy balances expressed in million tonnes of oil equivalent. Complete data are available for 2012 and 2013 as well as provisional data for the most recent year (i.e. 2014). Historical tables summarise data on production, trade and final consumption by sector as well as key energy and economic indicators. The book also includes definitions of products and flows, explanatory notes on the individual country data and conversion factors from original units to energy units.
Unique en son genre, le recueil de l'Association internationale des hautes juridictions administratives, publié à l'occasion de chaque congrès triennal, constitue un précieux outil d'analyse comparée en matière de droit administratif, contribuant ainsi à une meilleure connaissance des traditions juridiques nationales. Ce cinquième recueil rend compte des travaux du IXe congrès de l'Association, qui s'est tenu à Madrid en 2009. Dans le prolongement du thème de ce congrès, il regroupe des décisions, parmi les plus significatives de leur jurisprudence, relatives à l'exécution des décisions des juridictions administratives. Les décisions présentées dans ce volume sont celles des hautes juridictions des États suivants : Algérie, Allemagne, Belgique, Bénin, Canada, Conseil de l'Europe, Côte d'Ivoire, Egypte, Finlande, France, Grèce, Irlande, Italie, Luxembourg, Pays-Bas, République tchèque, Sénégal, Suède, Turquie. Chacune d'entre elles comporte un résumé en français et anglais.
Following the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon on 1st December 2009, territorial cohesion has become a new policy goal of the European Union as well as the economic and social cohesion. But this concept may appear vague and distant. What definition should we give to the territorial cohesion ? How has it become a concern of the Union ? What was the impact in this area of the various European treaties and the role of the European Economic and Social Cohesion Policy ? How can territorial cohesion now be taken into account in EU policies ? These are the questions that this booklet wants to clarify while the European Commission inititiated in October 2008 an extensive debate on this subject with the member States and the socio-economic stakeholders of the Union ?
â€oeUrban Logistics Spacesâ€ (ELU) presented here can answer that question. These are facilities intended to reconfigure flows across towns by introducing break of load points. The purpose of this guide is to support institutions and professionals seeking to implement such a facility by providingthem with an analysis method, an estimate of the resources to be committed, a method for action and benchmarks.
The research and experimental action that has enabled this guide is part of a persistent national effort, particularly within the framework of the national â€oeGoods in townâ€ programme, to improve knowledge and know-how in a field which has been neglected for too long.
Outre l'évolution démographique à long terme, les systèmes européens de sécurité sociale sont confrontes à de nouveaux défis en raison du durcissement de la concurrence mondiale et d'un système bancaire international axé sur les profits financiers à court terme. Ce rapport explore donc de nouvelles pistes permettant aux responsables politiques et aux institutions européennes de pérenniser les systèmes de sécurité sociale. Il examine les options assurant une viabilité financière à court et à long terme. Il recense également les principaux mécanismes favorisant la cohésion sociale, comme l'accent mis sur les droits sociaux et le dialogue social. il étudie ensuite les principales questions politiques qui se posent dans les grands domaines de la sécurité sociale, comme les soins de santé, l'assistance sociale et les prestations familiales, les pensions, les prestations de chômage et d'incapacité professionnelle, et les soins de longue durée.
Following the 2008 OECD review of education policies in the Dominican Republic, the examining team was tasked to assess the condition of higher education in the Dominican Republic, to evaluate policies for higher education and research, and to identify future policy options to help meet the nation's needs.
Against the background report prepared by the Dominican authorities and information supplied in meetings in the course of site visits, this OECD report provides an analysis of the higher education sector within the economic, social and political context of the Dominican Republic. It looks into access, quality and relevance, the effectiveness and governance of the system, its financing as well as its research and innovation capacity. The report concludes with a list of pragmatic recommendations for policy action.