This book discusses the problem of sea carriers' liability, with a particular focus on role of the technologies that have been employed to support maritime transport in recent decades. It examines the Hague Rules, providing an overview of the precedent standard of liability, its historical development up until its application, and its construction at the current time. To do so, it presents two exemplary studies from English and American case law, and analyzes the situations in which the courts have required the application of new technologies as part of the duties set in the current governing liability regime. Written in an easy-to-follow style, the book offers not only an unique overview of the applications of technologies in making ships both seaworthy and cargo-worthy, but also a practice-oriented guide to understanding and making decisions about sea carriers' liability. It is intended for law practitioners as well as advanced graduate students and researchers in the field of maritime shipping, transport and insurance law
This book presents recent results in finite mixtures of skewed distributions to prepare readers to undertake mixture models using scale mixtures of skew normal distributions (SMSN). For this purpose, the authors consider maximum likelihood estimation for univariate and multivariate finite mixtures where components are members of the flexible class of SMSN distributions. This subclass includes the entire family of normal independent distributions, also known as scale mixtures of normal distributions (SMN), as well as the skew-normal and skewed versions of some other classical symmetric distributions: the skew-t (ST), the skew-slash (SSL) and the skew-contaminated normal (SCN), for example. These distributions have heavier tails than the typical normal one, and thus they seem to be a reasonable choice for robust inference. The proposed EM-type algorithm and methods are implemented in the R package mixsmsn, highlighting the applicability of the techniques presented in the book.
This work is a useful reference guide for researchers analyzing heterogeneous data, as well as a textbook for a graduate-level course in mixture models. The tools presented in the book make complex techniques accessible to applied researchers without the advanced mathematical background and will have broad applications in fields like medicine, biology, engineering, economic, geology and chemistry.
The study of how the brain processes temporal information is becoming one of the most important topics in systems, cellular, computational, and cognitive neuroscience, as well as in the physiological bases of music and language. During the last and current decade, interval timing has been intensively studied in humans and animals using increasingly sophisticated methodological approaches. The present book will bring together the latest information gathered from this exciting area of research, putting special emphasis on the neural underpinnings of time processing in behaving human and non-human primates. Thus, Neurobiology of Interval Timing will integrate for the first time the current knowledge of both animal behavior and human cognition of the passage of time in different behavioral context, including the perception and production of time intervals, as well as rhythmic activities, using different experimental and theoretical frameworks. The book will the composed of chapters written by the leading experts in the fields of psychophysics, functional imaging, system neurophysiology, and musicology. This cutting-edge scientific work will integrate the current knowledge of the neurobiology of timing behavior putting in perspective the current hypothesis of how the brain quantifies the passage of time across a wide variety of critical behaviors.
Irrigated agriculture, a vital component of general agriculture, supplies fruits, vegetables, and cereals consumed by humans and grains fed to animals. Consequently, agriculture is the largest user of fresh water globally, and irrigation practices in many parts of the world are biologically, economically, and socially unsustainable. Water management should balance the need for agricultural water and the need for a sustainable environment. Water-use efficiency is the prime challenge in worldwide farming practices where problems of water shortages are widespread. Currently, agriculture is undergoing significant changes in innovative irrigation, fertilizer technology, and agronomic expertise. These elements constitute a vital platform for sustainable agricultural success and for preventing environmental damage. This review presents several processes linked to environmental irrigation, balancing environmental protection with improved agricultural production.
This book is composed by the papers accepted for presentation and discussion at The 2019 International Conference on Information Technology & Systems (ICITS'20), held at the Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, in Bogotá, Colombia, on 5th to 7th February 2020.
ICIST is a global forum for researchers and practitioners to present and discuss recent findings and innovations, current trends, professional experiences and challenges of modern information technology and systems research, together with their technological development and applications.
The main topics covered are: information and knowledge management; organizational models and information systems; software and systems modelling; software systems, architectures, applications and tools; multimedia systems and applications; computer networks, mobility and pervasive systems; intelligent and decision support systems; big data analytics and applications; human-computer interaction; ethics, computers & security; health informatics; information technologies in education.
This book brings together the latest research in smart sensors technology and exposes the reader to myriad industrial applications that this technology has enabled. The book emphasizes several topics in the area of smart sensors in industrial real-world applications. The contributions in this book give a broader view on the usage of smart sensor devices covering a wide range of interdisciplinary areas like Intelligent Transport Systems, Healthcare, Agriculture, Drone communications and Security.
By presenting an insight into Smart Sensors for Industrial IoT, this book directs the readers to explore the utility and advancement in smart sensors and their applications into numerous research fields. Lastly, the book aims to reach through a mass number of industry experts, researchers, scientists, engineers, and practitioners and help them guide and evolve to advance research practices.